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Contemporary 

J IHl Frllll III) IfS \kH 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



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Contemporary Black Artists 



In America 



Contemporary Black Artists 



In America 



by Robert Doty, Curator, Whitney Museum of American Art 
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York 



Trustees 



Museum Staff 



Flora Whitney Miller, Chairman 
David M. Solinger, President 
Flora Miller Irving, Vice President 
Alan H. Temple, Secretary and Treasurer 

Arthur G. Altschul 

John I. H. Baur 

B. H. Friedman 

Lloyd Goodrich 

W. Barklie Henry 

Susan Morse Hilles 

Michael H. Irving 

Howard W. Lipman 

G. Macculloch Miller 

Mrs. Laurance S. Rockefeller 

Robert W. Sarnoff 

Benno C. Schmidt 

William M. White, Jr. 

Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, Founder 
Stephen E. Weil, Assistant Secretary 



John I. H. Baur, Director 
Lloyd Goodrich, Consultant 
Stephen E. Weil, Administrator 
Robert M. Doty, Curator 
Margaret McKellar, Executive Secretary 
and Registrar 

James K. Monte, Associate Curator 

Marcia Tucker, Associate Curator 

David Bienstock, Curator of Film 

Elke Solomon, Assistant Curator of Prints 

Libby W. Seaberg, Librarian 

Elizabeth Streibert, Research and Cataloguer 

David Hupert, Head, Education Department 

Leon Levine, Public Relations 

Margaret M. Watherston, Conservator 

Wilbur C. Ashman, Controller 
Jessie Morrow Mohrmann, Personnel 

Supervisor 
Denny Judson, Executive Secretary, Friends 

of the Whitney Museum of American Art 
Doris Wilk Palca, Sales 8r Information 
Marie Appleton 

John Murray, Building Manager 
John E. Martin, Head Preparator 
Robert F. Clark, Chief Security Officer 



April 6-May 16, 1971 

Whitney Museum of American Art 

945 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10021 

Published in the United States of America in 1971 
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 

74—154608 
All rights reserved 
Copyright © 1971 by the Whitney Museum of 

American Art, New York 



Designed by Joseph Bourke Del Valle 
Printed in the United States of America 
by Eastern Press, New Haven, Connecticut 
Photographs by: Ceoffrey Clements; LeMoyne 
Coates; Don Farber: Joseph Klima, Jr,; Eric 
Pollitzer; Ann Racz; Ricco-Mazzuchi-Kapler; 
Walter Rosenblum; foe Schopplien; Standard 
Photo Service Co.; William Suttle; Frank J. Thomas. 



Acknowledgments 

For consultation, advice and assistance, I am grateful to: Mrs. Betty Asher, Mrs. Ann Atkins, 
Romare Bearden, John T. Biggers, Claude Booker, Mrs. Terry Dintenfass, David Driskell, 
George }. Edwards, Robert Fowler, Harold Hart, Andrew C. Hyde, David Katsive, James 
Kennedy, Mrs. Evangeline J. Montgomery, Keith Morrison, Herbert Nipson, Mrs. Lois Jones 
Pierre-Noel, Edsel Reid, Miss Luise Ross, Merton D. Simpson, Murray Smither, Bill Walker, 
and Willis Woods. Mrs. Annette Grob and Mrs. Susan Finn provided expertise in preparing 
both the exhibition and the catalogue. Special assistance in the production of the catalogue 
has been furnished by Mr. Chauncey Waddell and Mr. William Zierler. 

The Whitney Museum of American Art is grateful to the following lenders: The Detroit 
Institute of Arts; Terry Dintenfass, Inc., New York; Forum Gallery, New York; Grand Central 
Art Galleries, New York; Kenmore Galleries, Inc., Philadelphia; Larcada Gallery, New York; 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Betty Parsons Gallery, New York; John Pence, New York; 
Dr. John T. Williams, Philadelphia; William Zierler, Inc., New York. We are indebted to the 
artists who have made the exhibition possible. 



This exhibition is devoted to commitment — to pictures and objects which affirm hard work, 
faith, patience, imagination, and aesthetic integrity; to creation, bringing forth life or causing 
life to be realized anew; to human values, both intellectual and emotional. 

It is devoted to American artists who are Black — creative individuals, with widely dis- 
parate intentions, ideas and goals; artists whose works are categorized as "Black Art," or 
"Afro-American art," despite the fact that diversity is their universal trait. 

It is devoted to concepts of self: self-awareness, self-understanding and self-pride — 
emerging attitudes which, defined by the idea "Black is beautiful," have profound implications 
in the struggle for the redress of social grievances. The Black artists of Chicago's South Side 
painted two civic murals entitled "The Wall of Respect" and "The Wall of Dignity," and re- 
cently Romare Bearden wrote: "Whatever increases the self-awareness of black people will 
therefore enlarge the opinion they have of themselves — as well as the opinion other people 
have of them." 1 

In his history of the Negro in the United States, 12 Million Black Voices, Richard Wright 
describes the culture of Africa: "We smelted iron, danced, made music, and recited folk 
poems; we sculptured, worked in glass, spun cotton and wool, wove baskets and cloth; we 
invented a medium of exchange, mined silver and gold, made pottery and cutlery; we fash- 
ioned tools and utensils of brass, bronze, ivory, quartz, and granite; we had our own literature, 
our own system of law, religion, medicine, science, and education; we painted in color upon 
rocks; we raised cattle, sheep, and goats; we planted and harvested grain — in short, centuries 
before the Romans ruled, we lived as men." 2 

Now, as a means of arousing greater knowledge and a desire for cultural heritage among 
their people, many Black artists are turning to the tribal arts of Africa as a source, taking as 
their subject matter folklore, religious and political stories and myths, animal and other 
symbols, illustrations of the people, and the vivid colors and rhythmic forms of tribal artifacts. 
This is, in fact, a rebirth of an earlier interest in the assimilation of the arts of Africa and 
America. 

In 1925, Dr. Alain Locke advocated that Negro artists look to the "ancestral arts" as a 
means of incorporating a "racial idiom" in their work. For example, Aaron Douglas super- 
imposed geometric motifs on his murals, "Aspects of Negro Life," in the Countee Cullen 
Branch of the New York Public Library. The new interest in the tribal arts stems from a desire 
to comprehend the beauty of exotic and traditional art and a need, both personal and public, 
to foster manifestations of cultural wealth. A successful conjunction of tribal material and 
contemporary aesthetics is found in the paintings of Joe Overstreet, whose bold color patterns 
are laid on canvases suspended by ropes which suggest the ancient use of animal hides. Three 



opposite: 

Raymond Saunders. Marie's Bill. 

1970. Oil on canvas. 83 x 54. Lent by Terry Dintenfass, Inc. 




above: 

James Brantley. The Informer. 

1970. Oil on canvas. 8 x 10. 

Lent by Kenmore Galleries, Inc., Philadelphia. 

opposite above: 

Avel de Knight. Mirage Painting: Shields. 

1970. Gouache on board. 247a x 27. Lent by Larcada Gallery. 



opposite below: 

Alma W. Thomas. Naw Galaxy. 

1970. Synthetic polymer on canvas. 54 x 54. Lent by the artist. 






10 



young artists, Ellsworth Ausby, Algernon Miller and Ernest Frazier, use color and form to 
create painting and sculpture which are both abstract in the contemporary mode and evoca- 
tive of tribal art. The union of past and present is once again proving to be a powerful stimulus. 

Commingling with the intensified development of self-awareness is a conscious effort 
to increase and emphasize a socio-political content. Writing in 1940, Alain Locke noted that 
"Much of our contemporary art is rightly an art of social analysis and criticism, touching the 
vital problems of religion, labor, housing, lynching, unemployment, social reconstruction, 
and the like." 3 Recently, Edmund B. Gaither, curator of the Museum of the National Center 
of Afro-American Artists, stated that "Black art is a didactic art form arising from a strong 
nationalistic base and characterized by its commitment to a] use the past and its heroes to 
inspire heroic and revolutionary ideals, and b) use recent political and social events to teach 
recognition, control and extermination of the 'enemy' and c) to project the future which the 
nation can anticipate after the struggle is won." 4 The Minister of Culture of the Black Panther 
Party is more explicit, commanding "all progressive artists to take up their paints and brushes 
in one hand and their gun in the other . . . bridges, buildings, electric plants, pipelines, all of 
the Fascist American empire must be blown up in our pictures." 5 

Such extremist exhortations are categorically dismissed by many Black artists who 
refuse to believe that art should be subjected to the necessity of conveying a political mes- 
sage. They would agree with Barbara Chase-Riboud that "nobody should attempt to limit 
artists in their response to the world." Indeed, many Black artists refuse to be subjugated to 
collective aims. One of them is Malcolm Bailey. His drawings and paintings appertain to the 
iconography of Black people, but in his opinion "there is no definition of black art. It is absurd 
to take a group of painters, whose various works and concepts differ, and categorize this 
group as exponents of black art just because of their skin color." 7 Writing under the title 
"Black is a Color," Raymond Saunders asserts: "Racial hang-ups are extraneous to art. No 
artist can afford to let them obscure what runs through all art — the living root and the ever- 
growing aesthetic record of human spiritual and intellectual experience. . . ." 8 For artists such 
as these, freedom of expression signifys freedom for the individual. 

During the twentieth century, a predominant subject of the Black artists has been the 
drama of daily life. It appears in the genre scenes of city life painted by Archibald Motley 
in the twenties and thirties, the portraits of heroes and leaders by Charles White, and the 
scenes of street life by Jacob Lawrence and Roma re Bearden. Early in his career Bearden 
wrote: "At present it seems that by a slow study of rules and formulas the Negro artist is 
attempting to do something with his intellect, which he has not felt emotionally. . . . An 
intense, eager devotion to present day life, to study it, to help relieve it, this is the calling of 



opposite: 

Frederick John Eversley. Untitled. 

1971. Polyester resin. 72 (diameter) x 18. Lent by the artist. 



I I 



the Negro artist." 9 In the painting, sculpture and graphics of Negro artists in the thirties and 
forties a concern for conflict, stress, and tragedy appears constantly. Because of his personal 
needs and the needs of his time, the Negro artist chose realism as the chief mode of conveying 
his emotions and experiences. Negro art students were taught theories of "truth to nature," 
thus encouraging acceptance of landscape, still-life and genre subjects as suitable topics. For 
the Black artist, realism was more than a style or technique, it was a means of communication. 
Charles White's portraits of leaders such as Frederick Douglass were a reminder of the role 
the hero played in the life of the Black people. Such images were a necessity, an assurance 
that Black people would endure. 

So long as Black artists are inspired to create, they will continue to testify to the "Black 
experience," the special conditions, heritage and emotions which delineate the life of Black 
people. But creative drives cannot be channeled. Inevitably an artist reacts to the ideas and 
techniques which constitute the current mode, sensing and assimilating new directions of 
thought and vision, or the evolution of his own technique and ideas guides him toward a new 
result. Richard Hunt and Barbara Chase-Riboud first received attention for their figure- 
oriented sculptures, but over the course of a decade both have worked toward abstraction, 
while retaining references to the organic in their pieces. As a young artist in California, 
Daniel Johnson shared a preoccupation with the value of discarded objects and produced 
rough assemblages which often symbolized racial conditions. Since moving to New York, 
Johnson has been preoccupied with problems of color, form and space. Melvin Edwards 
entitled an early group of welded steel pieces "Lynch Fragment Series," but his recent work 
demonstrates a coalescence of static and flexible states rather than racial tragedy. William 
Henderson painted a series of demonic images from the black world, but he has now refined 
both his technique and imagery to pursue hard-edged, geometric abstraction. The nuances of 
color and images of Africa are the vehicle for paintings by Frank Bowling. These six are rep- 
resentative of a new generation of Black artists, who inherited their own culture and sought 
the universal canons of the visual arts. Their task will be the accomodation, or rejection, of 
venerable emotions and new stimulii. 

Whether bitter or jubilant, the initial impetus for taking up brush or pencil, stone or 
metal, is often personal experience and its emotional condition. But the creative act is rarely 
sustained indefinitely by passion or desire. Generally the artist relies on conventions or 
systems, established methods and procedures for organizing the format of object or image. 
A rational approach to complex problems is neither convenient nor expedient for the Black 
artist. He must answer to his own cultural loyalties and the community, both of which insist 
that he create art that expresses blackness. Nonetheless, young black artists are facing the 
dilemma. William T. Williams has made an outstanding contribution to modern painting by 



12 



combining a distinctive regard for color with recent concepts of scale and the frontal plane 
of the canvas. Alvin Loving also employs color on a grand scale, constructing each painting 
by a system of modular units, and John Chandler manipulates color values and spatial rela- 
tions. Their command of means is significant, but it is their ambition and integrity which 
demands respect. 

Ultimately the Black artist and his audience must respond to '"the authority of the 
created thing," 10 that unique quality which originates only with the creative individual, and 
which flourishes only under a spirit of free inquiry. The need for that freedom was never 
greater. 



1. Romare Bearden, introduction to the exhibition 
The Black Experience. Lincoln University, 1970. 

2. Richard Wright and Edwin Rosskam, 12 Million 
Black Voices, New York, The Viking Press, 1941. 
p. 13. 

3. Alain Locke, The Negro in Art. Washington, D.C., 
Associates in Negro Folk Education, 1940, p. 10. 

4. Edmund B. Gaither, Afro-American Artists: New 
York and Boston, Boston, The Museum of Fine 
Arts, 1970. 

5. Quoted by Lawrence Alloway, "Art." The Na- 
tion. Vol. 211, No. 12, October 19, 1970, p. 382. 



6. "People: Barbara Chase-Riboud," Essence, Vol. 
I, No. 2, June 1970, p. 62. 

7. "Black Art: What Is It?" The Art Gallery, Vol. 
XIII, No. 7, April 1970, p. 32. 

8. Raymond Saunders, Black Is a Color, privately 
printed pamphlet, 1967. 

9. Romare Bearden. quoted in Cedric Dover, Ameri- 
can Negro Art. Greenwich, Conn., New York 
Graphic Society, 1960, p. 32. 

10. John Malcolm Brinnen and Bill Read, preface, The 
Modern Poets, New York, McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, 1970, (second edition), p. ix. 



I.'i 




John E. Chandler. Harvey's Quest (detail). 

1971. Synthetic polymer on canvas. 90 x 270. Lent by the artist. 




Mahler B. Ryder. "21 ". 

1970. Mixed media. 77 x 43 x 16. Lent by the artist. 



L5 



Mi 




*M* 



m nVii .1 



1 






.. " 


- 




— 






























. . 




- 


• 








- 




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70 



Ralph Arnold. From the Confrontation Series: Celebration. 
1970. Crayon and pencil on paper. 23 x 29. Lent by the artist. 

opposite: 

Marvin Brown. Untitled. 

1970. Synthetic polymer and oil on canvas. 114 x 114. Lent by the artist. 



17 




Howardena Pindell. Untitled. 

1970. Synthetic polymer on canvas. 69 x 79. Lent by the artist. 



18 



Manuel Hughes. Group One. 

1970. Oil on canvas. 42 x 42. Lent by the artist. 








4% 



vv^.^,' ./ 



20 





Catti. Man, Moon, and Earth. 

1970. Synthetic polymer on canvas, 60 x 60. Lent by the artist. 

opposite above: 

Roland Ayers. Atlantis Rising, II. 

1969. Ink on paper. 36 x 32. Lent by the artist. 

opposite below: 

Hartwell Yeargans. Drought Victims. 

1969. Etching. 12 x 18. Lent by the artist. 



21 







A" < 



and £ N .•- 



^afft 









i 






i 




Murry N. De Pillars. Aunt Jemima. 

1968. Ink on paper. 38 x 32 :, /4. Lent by the artist 



22 




Frank Sharpe. Man: Amnesty. 

1970. Intaglio. 30 x 22. Lent by the artist. 



23 




Phillip Lindsay Mason. ManchiJd in the Promised Land. 
1969. Synthetic polymer on canvas. 51 x 66. Lent by the artist. 



24 




Charles W. McGee. Untitled No. 1. 

1969. Charcoal on paper. 44 x 34. Lent by The Detroit 

Institute of Arts. 



:'.:, 




Charles White. Wanted Poster Series #6. 

1969. Oil on board. 59 x 27. Lent by Forum Gallery. 



} -■- • om#» '"-" M 1 * 1 * * 




26 




Frank Bowling. Where Is Lucienne? 

1970. Synthetic polymer on canvas. 126 x 134. Lent by Lucienne De Wulf. 



■17 







Barkley Hendricks. Brown Sugar Vine. 

1970. Oil and synthetic polymer on canvas. 50 x 48. Lent by Dr. John T. Williams. 



28 




Charles Searles. News. 

1970. Synthetic polymer on canvas. 60 x 72. Lent by the artist. 



29 




Jacob Lawrence. Pool Room. 

1970. Gouache. 22 x 30. Lent by Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 



:«) 



Noah Purifoy. Untitled. 

1970. Mixed media. 48 x 28 x 12. Lent by the artist. 




31 



Robert Reid. A Failing #2. 

1970. Oil and collage on canvas 44 x 44. Lent by Alonzo Gallery. 




32 







Russell T. Gordon. Kaleidoscopic Portrait Series #5. 
1970. Etching. 20 x 17'/2. Lent by the artist. 



33 




!t^&>. 



Franklin A. White, Jr. The Red Cap. 

1970. Oil on canvas. 72 x 78. Lent by Jefferson Place Gallery, Washington, D.C. 



34 




William Howard Henderson. The Smile. 

1968. Oil on canvas. 72 x 48. Lent by the artist. 



35 



Hughie Lee-Smith. Man Standing On His Head. 

1970. Oil on canvas. 36 x 46. Lent by the artist, courtesy 

Grand Central Galleries. 




36 




Norma Morgan. A Cave Interior. 

1967. Engraving. 2472 x I6V2. Lent hy the artist. 



:i7 



James Lee. Cieo 11. 

' I Oil. cork on canvas. 48 x 48. Lent bv the artist. 








Walter Cade III. L'ntifled. 

1970. Mixed media. 36 x 30. Lent by the artist. 



39 




Phillip Lindsay Mason. With Everything on My Mind. 
1968. Lithograph. 7Va x 12. Lent by the artist. 



40 




Vincent Smith. The Super. 

1970. Oil, sand on canvas. 47 x 41. Lent by Larcada Gallery. 



41 




Barbara Chase-Riboud. Monument ///. 

1970. Bronze and silk. 84 x 36 x 6. Lent by Betty Parsons Gallery. 



Raymond Saunders. 7, 5, 6, 3. 

1970. Pencil on paper. 6V4 x 874. Lent by Terry Dintenfass, Inc. 







43 




John Rhoden. Blue Eyes (Indonesian LegendJ. 
1965. Wood. 52 x 48 x 48. Lent by the artist. 



44 



Todd Wiliams. Autumn. 
1970. Painted wood. 68 x 19 x 9. Lent by the artist. 




45 




Mahler B. Ryder. The Groat American Bus. 
1969. Ink on paper. 18x18. Lent by the artist. 



46 




Betye Saar. Whitey's Way. 

1969. Mixed media. 9 3 Ai x 17 :, Ai x 9V2. Lent by the artist. 



47 




David Driskell. Jonah in th<? Whale. 
1967. Woodcut. 16x12. Lenl by the artist. 



48 




Stephanie Pogue. Untitled (radishes}. 

1968. Color etching. 10 V2 x 9V2. Lent by the artist. 



49 




r>o 



Ellsworth Ausby. Untitled. 

1970. Painted wood. 82 x 34 x 24. Lent by the artist. 

opposite: 

Alvin Loving. WYN . . . Time Trip I. 

1971. Synthetic polymer on canvas. 147 x 324. 
Lent by the artist, courtesy William Zierler, Inc. 




',1 




Walter Davis. Black Bird Totem. 

1970. Oil on canvas. 96 x 50. Lent bv the artist. 



52 




Ai& 



Ernest Frazier. Rasolar. 

1970. Synthetic polymer on canvas. 77 (diameter). Lent by the artist. 



53 




Lester Johnson. Traumerei. 

1970. Synthetic polymer on canvas. 50 x 50. Lent by the artist. 



54 




Algernon Miller. Third VVor/d Tree. 

1970. Painted wood. 84 x 28 x 6. Lent by the artist. 



55 



Catalogue 

Measurements are in inches, height preceding 
width and depth. Galleries and the artist's resi- 
dence are located in New York unless otherwise 
indicated. 



Arnold, Ralph, b. 1928. Chicago, 111. 

1 Some of My Favorite Things. 1969. Etching. 
29 x 27'/2. Lent by the artist. 

2 From the Confrontation Series: Celebra- 
tion. 1970. Crayon and pencil on paper. 
23 x 29. Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 17. 

3 Arcade With Bridge. 1970. Intaglio. 23 x 29. 
Lent by the artist. 

Ausby, Ellsworth A. b. 1942. Brooklyn, N.Y. 

4 Untitled. 1970. Painted wood. 82 x 34 x 24. 
Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 51. 

Ayers, Roland, b. 1932. Philadelphia, Pa. 

5 The Creation. 1970. Ink on paper. 22 x 18. 
Lent by the artist. 

6 Atlantis Rising, II. 1969. Ink on paper. 36 x 
32. Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 20. 

Bowling, Frank, b. 1936. 

7 Where Is Lucienne? 1970. Synthetic poly- 
mer on canvas. 126 x 134. Lent by Lucienne 
DeWulf. Illus. p. 27. 

Brantley, James, b. 1945. Philadelphia, Pa. 

8 The Informer. 1970. Oil on canvas. 8 x 10. 
Lent by Kenmore Galleries, Inc., Philadel- 
phia. Illus. p. 8. 

Brown, Marvin, b. 1943. 

9 Untitled. 3970. Synthetic polymer and oil 
on canvas. 114x114. Lent by the artist. Illus. 
p. 16. 



Cade, Walter HI. b. 1936. Jamaica, New 
York. 

10 Untitled. 1970. Mixed media. 36 x 30. Lent 
by the artist. Illus. p. 39. 

Catti. b. 1940. Hastings-on-Hudson, New 
York. 

11 Man, Moon, and Earth. 1970. Synthetic 
polymer on canvas. 60 x 60. Lent by the 
artist. Illus. p. 21. 

Chandler, John E. b. 1943. 

12 Garvey's Quest. Synthetic polymer on can- 
vas. 90 x 270. Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 14. 

Chase-Riboud, Barbara, b. 1936. Paris, 
France. 

13 Monument 111. 1969. Bronze and silk. 84 x 
36 x 6. Lent by Betty Parsons Gallery. Illus. 
p. 42. 

Davis, Walter, b. 1937. Mt. Vernon, N.Y. 

14 Black Bird Totem. 1970. Oil on canvas. 96 x 
50. Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 52. 

de Knight, Avel. b. 1933. 

15 Mirage Painting: Shields. 1970. Gouache on 
board. 24V2 x 27. Lent by Larcada Gallery. 
Illus. p. 9. 

16 Mirage Painting: No. 2. 1970. Gouache on 
board. 38 x 30. Lent by Larcada Gallery. 

DePillars, Murry N. b. Sagittarian, Chicago, 
111. 

17 Aunt Jemima. 1968. Ink on paper. 38 x 32 3 Ai. 
Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 22. 

Driskell, David, b. 1931. Nashville, Tenn. 

18 Partial Eclipse #2. 1968. Woodcut. 22 x 
I5V2. Lent by the artist. 

19 Jonah in the Whale. 1967. Woodcut. 16 x 12. 
Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 48. 

Eversley, Frederick John. b. 1941. Venice, 
Cal. 

20 Untitled. 1971. Polyester resin. 72 (diam- 
eter) x 18. Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 10. 



56 



Frazier, Ernest, b. 1942 . 

21 Rasolar. 1970. Synthetic polymer on can- 
vas. 77 (diameter). Lent by the artist. Illus. 
p. 53. 

Gordon, Russell T. b. 1936. Berkeley, Cal. 

22 Kaleidoscopic Portrait Series #2. 1969. 
Etching. 20 x 17 1 /*. Lent by the artist. 

23 Kaleidoscopic Portrait Series #5. 1970. 
Etching. 20 x YI l h. Lent by the artist. Illus. 
p. 33. 

24 Kaleidoscopic Woman. 1970. Pencil on 
paper. 30 x 22. Lent by the artist. 

25 California Series #3. 1969. Mixed media. 
24 x 18. Lent by the artist. 

Henderson, William Howard, b. 1943. San 
Francisco, Cal. 

26 Revolution. 1970. Synthetic polymer on 
canvas. 64 x 39. Lent by the artist. 

27 The Smile. 1968. Oil on canvas. 72 x 48. 
Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 35. 

Hendricks, Barkley L. b. 1945. New Haven, 
Conn. 

28 Brown Sugar Vine. 1970. Oil and synthetic 
polymer on canvas. 50 x 48. Lent by Dr. 
John T. Williams. Illus. p. 28. 

Hollingsworth, Alvin C. b. 1931. 

29 Trapped. 1969. Mixed media. 24 x 48. Lent 
by the artist. 

Hughes, Manuel, b. 1938. St. Louis, Mo. 

30 Group One. 1970. Oil on canvas. 42 x 42. 
Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 19. 

Hunter, Nathaniel, Jr. b. 1939. 

31 A/ro-American Queen. 1970. Mixed media. 
58 x 9 1 /■• x 12. Lent by the artist. 

Johnson, Lester, b. 1937. Detroit, Mich. 

32 Traumerei. 1970. Synthetic polymer on 
canvas. 50 x 50. Lent by the artist. Illus. 

p. 54. 



Knight, B. Nathaniel, b. 1942. 

33 Rhythm of My People, II. 1970. Oil and 
enamel on canvas. 49V:> x 72. Lent by John 
Pence. 

Lawrence, Jacob, b. 1927. 

34 Pool Game. 1970. Gouache. 22 x 30. Lent by 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Illus. p. 30. 

Lee, James, b. 1927. Detroit, Mich. 

35 Cleo II. 1970. Oil, cork on canvas. 48 x 48. 
Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 38. 

Lee-Smith, Hughie. b. 1915. Washington, 
D.C. 

36 Man Standing on His Head. 1970. Oil on 
canvas. 36 x 46. Lent by the artist, courtesy 
Grand Central Galleries. Illus. p. 36. 

Lloyd, Tom. b. 1929. Jamaica, New York. 

37 Moussakoo. 1968. Glass, metal, electric cir- 
cuitry. 74 x 84 x 5. Lent by the artist. 

Loving, Alvin. b. 1935. 

38 WYN . . . Time Trip I. 1971. Synthetic poly- 
mer on canvas. 147 x 324. Lent by the artist, 
courtesy William Zierler, Inc. Illus. p. 50. 

Mason, Phillip Lindsay, b. 1939. Oakland, 
Cal. 

39 Manchild in the Promised Land. 1969. Syn- 
thetic polymer on canvas. 51 x 66. Lent by 
the artist. Illus. p. 24. 

40 With Everything on My Mind. 1968. Litho- 
graph. 7' 2 x 12. Lent by the artist. Illus. 
p. 40. 

41 So Many Things I Might Have Done, But 
Clouds Got in My Way. 1968. Lithograph. 
10 x 7 1 /i>. Lent by the artist. 

McGee, Charles W. b. 1924. Detroit, Mich. 

42 Untitled No. 1. 1969. Charcoal on paper. 
44 x 34. Lent by The Detroit Institute of 
Arts. Illus. p. 25. 



57 



McNeill, Lloyd G., Jr. b. 1935. 

43 Untitled. 1970. Ink on paper. 9 x 12. Lent by 
the artist. 

44 Untitled. 1970. Ink on paper. 9 x 12. Lent by 
the artist. 

45 Untitled. 1970. Ink on paper. 9 x 12. Lent by 
the artist. 

46 Untitled. 1970. Ink on paper. 9 x 12. Lent by 
the artist. 

Miller, Algernon, b. 1945. 

47 Third World Tree. 1970. Painted wood. 84 x 
28 x 6. Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 55. 

Morgan, Norma, b. 1928. 

48 Cave Interior. 1967. Engraving. 24 1 '2 x I6V2. 
Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 37. 

Pindell, Howardena. b. 1943. 

49 Untitled. 1970. Synthetic polymer on can- 
vas. 69 x 79. Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 18. 

Pogue, Stephanie, b. 1944. Nashville, Tenn. 

50 After Kadmus. 1968. Color etching. 10 3 /4 x 
8V2. Lent by the artist. 

51 Untitled (radishes). 1968. Color etching. 
IOV2 x 972. Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 49. 

Purifoy, Noah. b. 1917. Los Angeles, Cal. 

52 Untitled. 1970. Mixed media. 48 x 28 x 12. 
Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 31. 

Pusey, Mavis. Birthdate withheld. 

53 Dejyqea. 1970. Oil on canvas. 72 x 60. Lent 
by the artist. 

Reid, Robert, b. 1924. 

54 A Falling #2. 1970. Oil and collage on can- 
vas. 44 x 44. Lent by Alonzo Gallery. Illus. 
p. 32. 

Rhoden, John. 1918. Brooklyn Heights, New 
York. 

55 Blur; Eyes (Indonesian LegendJ. 1965. Wood. 
52 x 48 x 48. Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 44. 



Rollins, Henry, b. 1937. San Francisco, Cal. 

56 Blue Totem. 1970. Painted bronze. 12 x 16 x 
12. Lent by the artist. 

Ross, Joseph B., Jr. b. 1943. Atlanta, Ga. 

57 Strange Fruit Repeated. Synthetic polymer 
on canvas. 38V2 x 25Va. Lent by the artist. 

Ryder, Mahler B. b. 1937. Providence, R.I. 

58 The Great American Bus. 1969. Ink on 
paper. 18 x 18. Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 46. 

59 The Great American Subway, No. 10. 1969. 
Ink on paper. 24 x 18. Lent by the artist. 

60 -'lir 1970. Mixed media. 77 x 43 x 16. Lent 
by the artist. Illus. p. 15. 

Saar, Betye. b. 1929. Hollywood, Cal. 

61 Whitey's Way. 1970. Mixed media. 9 3 /4 x 
17 :, /4 x 9V2. Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 47. 

62 Time. 1970. Mixed media. 12V2 x 9V2. Lent 
by the artist. 

Saunders, Raymond, b. 1934. Berkeley, Cal. 

63 Marie's Bill. 1970. Oil on canvas. 83 x 54. 
Lent by Terry Dintenfass, Inc. Illus. p. 6. 

64 Piay god. 1970. Pencil on paper. 8V4 x 6V4. 
Lent by Terry Dintenfass, Inc. 

65 Made in Japan. 1970. Pencil on paper. 6V4 x 
8V4. Lent by Terry Dintenfass, Inc. 

66 7.5.6.3. 1970. Pencil on paper. 6V4 x 8V4. 
Lent by Terry Dintenfass, Inc. Illus. p. 43. 

67 First Grade Reader, D. and ]. 1970. Pencil 
on paper. 8V4 x 6V4. Lent by Terry Dinten- 
fass, Inc. 

68 Light Up. 1970. Pencil on paper. 6V4 x 8V4. 
Lent by Terry Dintenfass, Inc. 

Searles, Charles, b. 1937. Philadelphia, Pa. 

69 News. 1970. Synthetic polymer on canvas. 
60 x 72. Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 29. 

Sharpe, Frank, b. 1942. Brooklyn, New 
York. 

70 Man: Amnesty. 1970. Intaglio. 30 x 22. Lent 
by the artist. Illus. p. 23. 



58 



Sills, Thomas, b. 1914. 

71 Return. 1970. Oil on canvas. 50 x 48. Lent 
by the artist. 

Smith, Vincent, b. 1929. Brooklyn, New 
York. 

72 The Super. 1970. Oil and sand on canvas. 
47 x 41. Lent by Larcada Gallery. Illus. p. 41. 

Terry, Evelyn P. b. 1946. Milwaukee, Wis. 

73 Black Flag. 1970. Etching. 13 x 1074. Lent 
by the artist. 

Thomas, Alma. b. 1896. Washington, D.C. 

74 Atmosphere I. 1970. Watercolor on paper. 
22x30. Lent by the artist. 

75 Atmosphere II. 1970. Watercolor on paper. 
22 x 30. Lent by the artist. 

76 New Galaxy. 1970. Synthetic polymer on 
canvas. 54 x 54. Lent by the artist. Illus. 
p. 9. 

Torres, John. b. 1939. Providence, R.I. 

77 Kate. 1970. Alabaster. 17 x 9 x 6. Lent by 
the artist. 



White, Charles, b. 1918. Los Angeles, Cal. 

78 Wanted Poster Series #6. 1969. Oil on 
board. 59 x 27. Private collection, courtesy 
Forum Gallery. Illus. p. 26. 

White, Franklin A. Jr. b. 1943. Washington, 
D.C. 

79 The Red Cap. 1970. Oil on canvas. 72 x 78. 
Lent by Jefferson Place Gallery, Washing- 
ton, D.C. Illus. p. 34. 

Wickham, Reginald, b. 1931. Teaneck, N.J. 

80 Harlem March. 1968. Photograph. 14 x 17. 
Lent by the artist. 

81 Tenement. 1970. Photograph. 9'/4 x 7 X U. 
Lent by the artist. 

Williams, Todd. b. 1939. Brooklyn, N.Y. 

82 Autumn. 1970. Painted wood. 68 x 19 x 9. 
Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 45. 

Yeargans, Hartwell. b. 1925. 

83 Drought Victims. 1969. Etching. 12 x 18. 
Lent by the artist. Illus. p. 20. 

Zimmerman, Elyn. b. 1945. Santa Monica, 
Cal. 

84 #110. 1970. Synthetic polymer on canvas. 
60x96. Lent by the artist. 



59 



Selected Bibliography 

by Libby W. Seaberg 

References are arranged alphabetically by 
author, if known, or by title, with exhibition 
catalogues listed either under the institution 
which prepared the catalogue or the city in 
which the institution is located. The place of 
publication of books and catalogues is New 
York City unless otherwise noted. 

Four earlier bibliographies are instructive 
sources for additional references; they are 
cited in the order of their issuance. The first, 
in James A. Porter's Modern Negro Art (see 
below, under GENERAL REFERENCES), is a 
comprehensive enumeration of sources related 
to Negro art and history in America since the 
Colonial period. However, the encyclopedic 
nature of many of its entries, particularly 
among the general references, makes it diffi- 
cult to identify individual American artists as 
members of an ethnologic group and reveals 
the paucity of attention given to the black 
artist at the comparatively early date of Mr. 
Porter's book— 1943. 

Published seventeen years after Porter's work, 
Maureen Dover's bibliography in Cedric 
Dover's American Negro Art (see below, under 
GENERAL REFERENCES) benefits from the 
expansion of scholarly interest in American 
artists in general, and black American artists 
in particular, during the last quarter-century. 
Mrs. Dover's extensive, well-organized docu- 
mentation acknowledges the limited value of 
including general arl histories as substitutes 
for more specific and intrinsic sources on her 
subject. 

In her valuable guide to the literature on Har- 
lem's cultural history (see below, under GEN- 
ERAL REFERENCES), fean Blackwell Hutson 



provides a selection of writings on black art 
and artists whose content goes beyond the 
geographic boundaries of Harlem. 

The fourth bibliography, an unpublished listing 
prepared in May, 1970 by Shirley and Edsel 
Reid (c/o the Arts Extended Gallery, Inc.; 
1549 Broadway; Detroit, Michigan), provides 
helpful direction for an informed study of 
black artists today. 

BOOKS BY ARTISTS IN THE EXHIBITION 
Lawrence, Jacob. Harriet and the Promised Land. 

Windmill Books, Inc., Simon and Schuster, 

Inc., 1968. 

White, Charles. Images of Dignity: The Drawings 
of Charles White (foreword by Harry Bela- 
fonte; texts by James A. Porter and Benjamin 
Horowitz). N.p., The Ward Ritchie Press, 1967. 

GENERAL REFERENCES 

Books and Exhibition Catalogues 

Alpha Kappa Alpha Society. Beta Iota Omega 
Chapter. Negro Heritage Committee, comp. 
Afro-American Women in Art: Their Achieve- 
ments in Sculpture and Painting. Greensboro, 
North Carolina, 1969. 

Art-West Associated North, Inc. New Perspec- 
tives in Black Art. Exhibition at the Oakland 
Museum Art Division, Kaiser Center Gallery. 
Oakland, California, 1968. 

The Baltimore Museum of Art. Contemporary 
Negro Arl (foreword by Alain Locke). Balti- 
more, 1939. 

Boston. The Museum of the National Center of 
Afro-American Artists, The Museum of Fine 
Arts and The School of the Museum of Fine 
Arts. Afro-American Artists New York and 
Boston (introduction by Edmund B. Gaither). 
Boston, 1970. 

Brandeis University. Rose Art Museum. 12 Black 
Artists from Boston (presented by The Afro- 



00 



American Organization). Waltham, Massachu- 
setts, 1969. 

California]. U[niversity of, at] L[os] A[ngeles]. 
Dickson Art Center. Co-sponsored by The 
California Arts Commission. The Negro in 
American Art (text by James A. Porter). N.p., 
[1966]. 

The Detroit Artists Market. Seven Black Artists. 
Detroit, 1969. 

Dover, Cedric. American Negro Art. London: 
Studio Books, Longacre Press Ltd.; Greenwich, 
Connecticut: The New York Graphic Society, 
1960. 

Fisk University. The Art Galleries. 3 Afro-Ameri- 
cans (foreword by David C. Driskell). 40th 
Annual Arts Festival Exhibition. Nashville, 
Tennessee, 1969. 

Flint Community Schools. Black Reflections. 
Flint, Michigan, 1970. 

Harlem Cultural Council, in cooperation with the 
School of the Arts and the Urban Center, Co- 
lumbia University. New Black Artists (fore- 
word by Edward K. Taylor). 1969. 

Howard University. The Gallery of Art. Ten Afro- 
American Artists of the Nineteenth Century 
(by James A. Porter). Washington, 1967. 

La Jolla Museum of Art. Dimensions of Black 
(Jehanne Teilhet, ed.; introduction by Henry 
J. Seldis). N.p., 1970. 

Lewis, Samella S. and Ruth G. Waddy, eds. Black 
Artists on Art, Vol. 1. Los Angeles, Contem- 
porary Crafts Publishers; distributed by The 
Ward Ritchie Press, Los Angeles, 1969. 

Lincoln University. The Black Experience (state- 
ments by Romare Bearden and Jay Jacobs). 
N.p., 1970. 

Locke, Alain. Negro Art: Past and Present. Wash- 
ington, Associates in Negro Folk Education, 
1936. 

, ed. The Negro in Art. Wash- 
ington, Associates in Negro Folk Education, 
1940. Reprint by Hacker Art Books, 1968. 



Mathews, Marcia M. Henry Ossawa Tanner: 
American Artist. Chicago and London, The 
University of Chicago Press, 1969. 

The Minneapolis Institute of Arts. 30 Contem- 
porary Black Artists (introduction by E[arl] 
Rjoger] M[andle]). Organized with the assist- 
ance of Ruder & Finn, Inc., New York. Minne- 
apolis, 1968. 

Mount Holyoke College. Friends of Art. Dwight 
Art Memorial. Ten Afro-American Artists (or- 
ganized by Henri Ghent). N.p., 1969. 

N[ational] Association for the] Advancement 
of] C[olored] P[eople] Special Contribution 
Fund. 1969: Twelve Afro-American Artists 
(preface by Roy Wilkins; essay by Carroll 
Greene). N.p., n.d. 

National Center of Afro-American Artists. Mu- 
seum. Five Famous Black Artists (introduction 
by Carroll Greene, Jr.). Roxbury, [Massachu- 
setts], 1970. 

New York. The City University, in cooperation 
with the Harlem Cultural Council and the New 
York Urban League. The Evolution of Afro- 
American Artists: 1800-1950 (excerpt from an 
essay by Carroll Greene, Jr.). Exhibition at 
Great Hall, The City College. 1967. 

New York. School of Visual Arts. Visual Arts 
Gallery. "Black Artists 1970," UBA [United 
Black Artists]. 1970. 

New York. The Studio Museum in Harlem. 
Harlem Artists 69 (introduction by Theodore 
Gunn). 1969. 

Philadelphia, The School District. Division of Art 
Education, in cooperation with the Museum of 
The Philadelphia Civic Center. Afro-American 
Artists 1800-1969 (by Randall J. Craig, with 
Frederic Bacon and Bernard Harmon). Phila- 
delphia, n.d. 

Porter, James A. Modern Negro Art. Dryden, 
1943. Reprint with a new preface by Arno 
Press and The New York Times, 1969. 



i,l 



Prints by American Negro Artists, 2nd ed. (texts 
by James A. Porter [reprint of text from UCLA. 
Dickson Art Center. The Negro in American 
Art. 1966— see above] and Ruth G. Waddy). 
Los Angeles, Cultural Exchange Center, 1967. 

Rhode Island School of Design. Museum of Art. 
Edward Mitchell Bannister, 1828-1901: Provi- 
dence Artist (preface by Hubert H. Humphrey; 
text by Daniel Robbins). Organized for the 
Museum of African Art, Frederick Douglass 
Institute, Washington, D.C. Providence, 1966. 

Ruder & Finn Fine Arts, New York. Contempo- 
rary BJack Artists (statements by Nina Kaiden 
Wright and Caroline S. Lerner). Traveling ex- 
hibition; an expanded version of exhibition 
organized by The Minneapolis Institute of Arts 
(see above), which grew out of New Voices: 
15 New York Artists, organized in 1968 by The 
Studio Museum in Harlem. 1969. 

Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Neighborhood 
Museum. D.C. Art Association 2nd Annual. 
Washington, 1970. 

Texas, University of. University Art Museum. 
Afro American Artists Abroad (introduction 
by James E. Lewis). Austin, Texas, 1970. 

Newspapers and Periodicals 

A[llen], W[illiam] D. P. 59 in "In the Galleries," 

Arts Magazine, Vol. 42, November 1967. 
Andrews, Benny. "The Black Emergency Cultural 

Coalition," Arts Magazine, Vol. 44, Summer 

1970, pp. 18-20. 
"Art," Time (special issue: Black America 1970), 

Vol. 95, April 6, 1970, pp. 80-87 and cover. 
P. 9 in "Art Abroad," Art Digest Newsletter, Vol. 

5, May 15, 1970. 
The Art Gallery (Afro-American issue), Vol. 11, 

April 1968. 

_(second Afro-American issue), Vol. 

13, April 1970. 
Arts in Society, Vol. 5, Summer-Fall 1968. 



"The Black Artist in America: A Symposium," 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, Vol. 
27, January 1969, pp. 245-261. 

Bloom, Janet. P. 56 in "In the Museums, Arts 
Magazine, Vol. 44, December 1969/January 
1970. 

Bruner, Louise. "Black Art," The Blade Sunday 
Magazine (Toledo, Ohio), September 13, 1970, 
pp. 28-29, 32, 34-35. 

Canaday, John. "America's First Major Black Art- 
ist," Carnegie Magazine, Vol. 44, April 1970, 
pp. 138-139. A reprint permitted by The New 
York Times Company. 

Davis, Douglas. "What Is Black Art?" News- 
week, Vol. 75, June 22, 1970, pp. 89-90. 

Garver, Thomas H. Pp. 83-84 in "Los Angeles," 
Art/orum, Vol. 8, May 1970. 

Greene, Jr., Carroll. "Afro-American Artists: yes- 
terday and now," The Humble Way, Vol. 7, 
Third Quarter 1968, pp. 10-15 and cover. 

Hutson, Jean Blackwell. "Harlem, A Cultural His- 
tory: Selected Bibliography," The Metropoli- 
an Museum of Art Bulletin, Vol. 27, January 
1969, pp. 280-288. 

Jones, Walter. "Black Art," Arts Magazine, Vol. 
44, April 1970, pp. 16, 18, and 20. 

Kramer, Hilton. "Black Artists' Show On View in 
Boston," The New York Times, May 22, 1970, 
p. 36. 

Mashek [sic], Joseph. P. 80 in "New York," Art- 
forum, Vol. 9, September 1970. 

"Museums and the Ghetto," Newsweek, Vol. 76, 
August 17, 1970, p. 93. 

Reed, Ishmael. "The Black Artist," Arts Maga- 
zine, Vol. 41, May 1967, pp. 48-49. 

Rose, Barbara. "Black Art in America," Art in 
America, Vol. 58, September-October 1970, 
cover and pp. 54-67. 

Siegel, Jeanne. "Why Spiral?" Art News, Vol. 65, 
September 1966, pp. 48-51, 67-68. 



62 



Tarshis, Jerome. P. 81 in "San Francisco," Art- 
forum, Vol. 9, October 1970, pp. 81-84. 

Werner, Alfred. "Black Is Not A Colour," Art 
and Artists, Vol. 4, May 1969, pp. 14-17. 

INDIVIDUAL ARTISTS IN THE EXHIBITION 

FRANK BOWLING 

Bowling, Frank. "Black Art III," Arts Magazine, 

Vol. 44, December 1969/January 1970, pp. 20, 

22. 

"Discussion on Black Art," Arts 

Magazine, Vol. 43, April 1969, pp. 16, 18, and 
20. 

"Discussion on Black Art II," 



Arts Magazine, Vol. 43, May 1969, pp. 20, 22-23. 
"The Rupture: Ancestor Wor- 



ship, Revival, Confusion, or Disguise," Arts 
Magazine, Vol. 44, Summer 1970, pp. 31-34. 

'Silence: People Die Crying When 



They Should Love," Arts Magazine, Vol. 45, 
September/October 1970, pp. 31-32. 

BARBARA CHASE-RIBOUD 

L[ast], M[artin]. P. 12 in "Reviews and Pre- 
views," Art News, Vol. 69, March 1970. 

"People: Barbara Chase-Riboud," Essence, Vol. 
1, June 1970, pp. 62, 71. 

Ratcliff, Carter. P. 78 in "New York Letter," Art 
International, Vol. 14, May 20, 1970. 

Schaefer (Bertha) Gallery, New York. Barbara 
Chase Riboud (statements by Arthur Rimbaud 
and Eldridge Cleaver). 1970. 

AVEL DE KNIGHT 

Bjrowne], R[osalindJ. P. 13 in "Reviews and 

Previews," Art News, Vol. 67, November 1968. 
JOHN FREDERICK EVERSLEY 
Seldis, Henry J. "Eversley Show in New York," 

Los Angeles Times, June 8, 1970, Part 4, p. 10. 
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. 

Fred Eversley Recent Sculpture (statement by 

the artist). 1970. 



ALVIN C. HOLLINGSWORTH 

Dintenfass (Terry), Gallery, New York. Al Hol- 
lingsworth. N.d. 

Hammond, Sally. "Al Hollingsworth: An Art to It 
All," New York Post, January 10, 1970, p. 29. 

Harbor Gallery, Cold Spring Harbor, New York. 
Hollingsworth. Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 
1969. 

JACOB LAWRENCE 

The American Federation of Arts. Jacob Law- 
rence (text by Aline B. Saarinen). 1960. 

"Bright Sorrow," Time, Vol. 77, February 24, 1961, 
pp. 60-63. 

Canaday, John. "Art: Scanning America of Nine- 
teenth Century," The New York Times, No- 
vember 1, 1969, p. 29. 

Fisk University. The Art Gallery. The Toussant 
L'Ouverture Series by Jacob Lawrence (fore- 
word by David C. Driskell). [Nashville, Ten- 
nessee], 1968. 

Glueck, Grace. Pp. 112-113 in "New York Gallery 
Notes: Who's Minding the Easel?" Art in 
America, Vol. 56, January-February 1968. 

Lee, Virginia. "Jacob Lawrence — Story Teller," 
Northwest Art News & Views, Vol. 1, March/ 
April 1970, pp. 16-21. 

Louchheim [Saarinen], Aline B. "An Artist Re- 
ports on the Troubled Mind," The New York 
Times Magazine, October 15, 1950, pp. 15, 35- 
36, and 38. 

McCausland, Elizabeth. "Jacob Lawrence," Mag- 
azine of Art, Vol. 38, November 1945, pp. 250- 
254. 

--"Pictures of Harlem by Jacob 
Lawrence," The SpringfieJd Sunday Union and 
Republican (Springfield, Massachusetts), May 
16, 1943, p. 6E. 

Pfomeroy], Rfalph], P. 15 in "Reviews and Pre- 
views," Art News, Vol. 66, January 1968. 



i,:i 



Wight, Frederick S. "Jacob Lawrence," pp. 272- 
275 in Baur, John I. H., ed., and others, New 
Art in America. Greenwich, Connecticut, New 
York Graphic Society, in cooperation with 
Frederick A. Praeger, Inc., 1957. 

ALVIN LOVING 

Ashton, Dore. P. 187 in "New York Commentary," 

Studio International, Vol. 179, No. 921, April 

1970. 
P[erret], Gjeorge] A. P. 57 in "In the Museums," 

Arts Magazine, Vol. 44, February 1970. 

Ratcliff, Carter. P. 71 in "New York," Art Inter- 
national. Vol. 14, April 20, 1970. 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. 
Alvin Loving [statement by the artistj. 1969. 

LLOYD McNEILL 

LJoyd McNeill; New Drawings (text by Walter 

Hopps). Corcoran-Workshop, Washington, 

1970. 

JOHN RHODEN 

Pittsburgh, University of. University Art Gallery. 
An Exhibition of Sculpture by John Rhoden 
(text by Vincent Struzzi). Pittsburgh, 1971. 

RAYMOND SAUNDERS 

B[owles], Jjerry]. P. 66 in "In the Galleries," 
Arts Magazine, Vol. 43, February 1969. 

I[ves], C[olta] Fjeller]. P. 60 in "In the Galler- 
ies," Arts Magazine, Vol. 41, May 1967. 

Saunders, Raymond. P. 6 in "Letters," Arts Mag- 
azine, Vol. 41, June 1967. Kxcerpts from reply 
to Ishmaol Reed's article in Arts Magazine. 
May 1967 (see above, under GENFRAL REF- 
ERENCES); Saunders' letter was printed in its 
entirety as Black is a Color, n.p., n.d. 

FRANK SHARPE 

Cinque Gallery, Inc., New York. Recent Prints: 
Fmiil; Sharpe. [ 1971 1. 



THOMAS SILLS 

Bodley Gallery, New York. Thomas Sills (state- 
ment by Henri Ghent). 1970. 

H[enry], G[errit]. P. 67 in "Reviews and Pre- 
views," Art News. Vol. 69, March 1970. 

Kantor (Paul) Gallery, Beverly Hills, California. 
Thomas Sills (textual excerpts by Lawrence 
Campbell). Beverly Hills, California, 1962. 

VINCENT SMITH 

Larcada Gallery, New York. Oils and drawings 
by Vincent Smith. 1967. 

Sjchafran], L[ynn] A. Pp. 14 and 71 in "Reviews 
and Previews," Art News. Vol. 67, September 
1968. 



CHARLES WHITE 

ACA Gallery, New York. Charles White (state- 
ment by Howard Fast). 1950. 

Charles White (statement by 

Herman Baron). 1953. 

-Charles White (statement by 



Harry Belafonte). 1958. 

-Charles White (foreword by 



Lorraine Hansberry). 1961. 

Fisk University. The Gallery of Art. Charles 
White (essays by James A. Porter and Benja- 
min Horowitz). Circulating exhibition shown 
at Howard University, Morgan State College 
and Fisk University; organized by Benjamin 
Horowitz, Director of the Heritage Gallery, 
Los Angeles. N.p., n.d. 

Ofpliger], C[urt]. Pp. 48-49 in "Los Angeles," 
Arlfonn, Vol. 2, April 1964. 

Wfhite], C[laire] N[icolas]. P. 76 in "Reviews 
and Previews," Art News, Vol. 69, April 1970. 

W[ilson], Wfilliam]. P. 15 in "Los Angeles," Art- 
forum, Vol. 4, October 1965. 



64